本文摘要:泉源:英语世界AbbreviationsPeople are often unsure about how to write abbreviations. The main areas of uncertainty are:人们经常不知道该如何使用缩写,不确定的方面主要是:whether to write abbreviations with capital letters是否该用大写字母写缩写词whether to use full stops是否要加上英文句点(.)wh


泉源:英语世界AbbreviationsPeople are often unsure about how to write abbreviations. The main areas of uncertainty are:人们经常不知道该如何使用缩写,不确定的方面主要是:whether to write abbreviations with capital letters是否该用大写字母写缩写词whether to use full stops是否要加上英文句点(.)when to use apostrophes.什么时候用撇号(')Here’s a quick-reference guide to help you get it right.本文为您提供快速参考指南,资助您正确使用。There are several kinds of abbreviation: the way an abbreviation is written usually depends on the category to which it belongs. The categories are listed below –英文中有几种缩写形式,而差别的方式通常取决于词汇所属的领域。分类如下——AcronymsAcronyms are words formed from the initial letters of other words and pronounced as they are spelled, not as separate letters. Examples include:acronym(首字母缩略词)指由其他单词首字母组成的单词,根据拼写方式发音,而不是每个字母单独发音。例如:aronymfull formAids艾滋病acquired immune deficiency syndrome获得性免疫缺陷综合征NATO北约North Atlantic Treaty Organization北大西洋条约组织UNESCO团结国教科文组织United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization团结国教育、科学和文化组织SIM (card)SIM卡subscriber identification moduleSIM卡/用户身份识别卡 Most acronyms can be written as capital letters or with only an initial capital letter.大多数acronym可以用大写字母,或仅仅第一个字母大写。

Some acronyms are so established that they are now ‘normal’ words, generally used without conscious awareness of their original full form. These words should be written in lower-case letters. Examples include:有些acronym很是成熟,现在都是看着很“正常”的词汇,通凡人们意识不到它们原来的完整形式。这些词应该用小写字母,例如: aronymfull formlaser激光light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation激光/受激辐射光放大radar雷达radio detection and ranging无线电探测与测距quango半官方机构quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization准自主非政府组织scuba水肺self-contained underwater breathing apparatus自给式水下呼吸器ContractionsContractions are a type of abbreviation in which letters from the middle of the word are omitted. Examples include:contraction(缩写词)也是一种缩写形式,省略了单词中间的字母。例如: contractionfull formDrDoctor医生/博士StSaint圣人LtdLimited有限公司RevdReverend教士/牧师 A contraction can also be an abbreviated form of more than one word, for example:contraction也可以由两个单词形成,例如:contractionfull formI'llI will / I shallwe'vewe haveshouldn'tshould not You do not need to use a full stop at the end of contractions, because the last letter of the original word is still present.无需在contraction后使用句点,因为原始单词的最后一个字母还保留着。In contractions that represent more than one word, the letters that have been omitted should be replaced with an apostrophe.当contraction代表两个或以上的单词,那省略掉的部门应用撇号取代。

InitialismsInitialisms are abbreviations which consist of the initial (i.e. first) letters of words and which are pronounced as separate letters when they are spoken. Examples include:initialism(首字母缩略词)也是取所有单词首字母组合而成的单词,但在发音时要单独发音每个字母。例如:initialismfull formBBCBritish Broadcasting Corporation英国国家广播公司MPMember of Parliament国集会员UNUnited Nations团结国TUCTrades Union Congress英国工会同盟UKUnited Kingdom大英团结王国CDcompact disc光盘/压缩磁盘You do not need to put full stops after the letters in an initialism. Sometimes, especially in American English, certain initialisms may include full stops if that is the preferred style of a particular writer or publisher. For example, the forms US andU.S. are both acceptable, as long as one or the other is used consistently within a piece of writing.在initialism之后无需添加句点。但有时,特别是在美式英语中,有些initialism中会有标点,这有可能是某些特定作家或出书社偏爱的气势派头。

例如,US和U.S.都可以接受,只要在一篇文章中保持一致即可。When you are forming the plural of an initialism, you do not need to use an apostrophe, for example:当你要使用initialism的复数形式时,直接转换复数,无需使用撇号(’),例如:MPse.g. MPs voted against the bill.CDse.g. I bought some new CDs today.Note that the possessive form of initialisms is formed in the usual way, with an apostrophe+ s:注意,如果是所有格形式,要按通常方式加上撇号,如:an MP’s salary(i.e. the salary of an MP)a report on MPs’ expenses(i.e. the expenses of MPs)the CD’s subtitle(i.e. the subtitle of the CD)ShorteningsShortenings are abbreviations in which the beginning or end of the word has been dropped. In some cases both the beginning and the end have been omitted. Examples include:shortening(缩略词)是将单词开头或末端删去后形成的缩写词。某些情况下开头和末端都被删去。


例如:shorteningfull formcellovioloncello大提琴fluinfluenza流感adadvertisement广告blogweblog博客rhinorhinoceros犀牛tellytelevision电视bikebicycle自行车 In some cases, the shortening involves a slight spelling change, as with bike andtelly.某些情况下,shortening会有些许拼写变化,例如bike和telly。These shortenings are now an accepted part of the language. In fact some of the original, longer forms tend to be used only in formal or technical writing. It would sound rather odd, for example, to describe a person as suffering from influenza unless you were writing in a scientific context.这些shortening现在已是广泛接受的语言。事实上,一些原始的、较长的单词形式只在正式或技术性写作中使用。例如,如果说到某人患流感时说他suffering from influenza,这除非是在科学叙述文中,否则听起来会很奇怪。

You do not need to use an apostrophe in shortenings to show that letters have been omitted.shortening无需使用撇号来显示被省略的字母。You should only use a capital letter if the original form also starts with a capital letter, for example:在原始单词首字母是大写的情况下,shortening首字母也要大写,例如:MedMediterranean地中海BritBritish (person)英国(人)JagJaguar美洲虎You do not need to use a full stop unless the shortening is one created specifically for use in writing, for example:shortening中无需使用句点,除非该词专门用于书面语,例如:Dec.December十二月Tue.Tuesday星期二etc.et cetera等等(谢谢复旦大学高承天友情整理自“牛津辞典”)。